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Systems Analysis and Design, 8th Edition

,  ,  

ISBN: 9781119803782

Systems Analysis and Design, 8th Edition offers students a hands-on introduction to the core concepts of systems analysis and systems design. Following a project-based approach written to mimic real-world workflow, the text includes a multitude of cases and examples, in-depth explanations, and special features that highlight crucial concepts and emphasize the application of fundamental theory to real projects.

Features

  • Gives students hands-on experience with a project-based approach to systems analysis and design
  • Allows students to apply their own work to real-world examples, including running cases that serve as project templates for a hands-on learning experience

  • Progresses logically through each topic, presenting new material in a way that mirrors a professional analyst’s workflow

Alan Dennis
Barbara Haley Wixom
Roberta M. Roth

Preface v

Part 1 Planning Phase

1 The Systems Analyst and Information Systems

Development, 3

Introduction, 4

The Systems Analyst, 6

Systems Analyst Skills, 6

Systems Analyst Roles, 7

The Systems Development Life Cycle, 8

Planning, 10

Analysis, 11

Design, 12

Implementation, 12

Project Identification and Initiation, 13

System Request, 15

Applying the Concepts at DrōnTeq, 16

Feasibility Analysis, 19

Technical Feasibility, 20

Economic Feasibility, 21

Organizational Feasibility, 27

Applying the Concepts at DrōnTeq, 29

Chapter Review, 31

Appendix 1A: Detailed Economic Feasibility

Analysis for DrōnTeq, 35

2 Project Selection and Management, 37

Introduction, 38

Project Selection, 39

Applying the Concepts at DrōnTeq, 40

Creating the Project Plan, 41

Project Methodology Options, 42

Selecting the Appropriate Development Methodology, 49

Contents

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xii Contents

Staffing the Project, 52

Staffing Plan, 52

Coordinating Project Activities, 55

Managing and Controlling the Project, 58

Refining Estimates, 58

Managing Scope, 60

Timeboxing, 60

Managing Risk, 61

Applying the Concepts at DrōnTeq, 62

Staffing the Project, 63

Coordinating Project Activities, 64

Chapter Review, 65

Part 2 Analysis Phase

3 Requirements Determination, 71

Introduction, 72

The Analysis Phase, 72

Requirements Determination, 74

What Is a Requirement?, 74

The Process of Determining Requirements, 78

The Requirements Definition Statement, 78

Requirements Elicitation Techniques, 80

Requirements Elicitation in Practice, 80

Interviews, 81

Joint Application Development (JAD), 88

Questionnaires, 92

Document Analysis, 94

Observation, 96

Selecting the Appropriate Techniques, 96

Requirements Analysis Strategies, 98

Problem Analysis, 98

Root Cause Analysis, 98

Duration Analysis, 100

Activity-Based

Costing, 100

Informal Benchmarking, 100

Outcome Analysis, 101

Technology Analysis, 101

Activity Elimination, 102

Comparing Analysis Strategies, 103

Applying the Concepts at DrōnTeq, 103

Eliciting and Analyzing Requirements, 103

Requirements Definition, 104

System Proposal, 104

Chapter Review, 106

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Contents xiii

4 Understanding Processes with Use Cases and Process

Models, 111

Introduction, 112

What Is a Use Case?, 113

The Use Case Concept in a Nutshell, 113

Use Case Formats and Elements, 114

Casual Use Case Format, 114

Use Cases in Sequence, 117

Applying Use Cases, 118

Use Case Practical Tips, 118

Use Cases and Functional Requirements, 119

Use Cases and Testing, 119

Creating Use Cases, 120

Identify the Major Use Cases, 120

Identify the Major Steps for Each Use Case, 122

Identify Elements within Steps, 125

Confirm the Use Case, 128

Revise Functional Requirements Based on Use Cases, 129

Applying the Concepts at DrōnTeq, 129

Identifying the Major Use Cases, 129

Elaborating on the Use Cases, 130

Data Flow Diagrams, 134

Reading Data Flow Diagrams, 134

Elements of Data Flow Diagrams, 136

Using Data Flow Diagrams to Define Business Processes, 139

Process Descriptions, 142

Creating Data Flow Diagrams, 144

Creating the Context Diagram, 145

Creating Data Flow Diagram Fragments, 146

Creating the Level 0 Data Flow Diagram, 148

Creating Level 1 Data Flow Diagrams (and Below), 149

Validating the Data Flow Diagrams, 152

Applying the Concepts at DrōnTeq, 156

Developing the Process Model, 156

Creating Data Flow Diagram Fragments, 156

Creating the Level 1 Data Flow Diagram, 157

Creating Level 2 Data Flow Diagrams (and Below), 159

Validating the Data Flow Diagrams, 160

Chapter Review, 161

5 Data Modeling, 169

Introduction, 170

The Entity Relationship Diagram, 170

Reading an Entity Relationship Diagram, 171

Elements of an Entity Relationship Diagram, 172

The Data Dictionary and Metadata, 177

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xiv Contents

Creating an Entity Relationship Diagram, 179

Building Entity Relationship Diagrams, 179

Advanced Syntax, 182

Applying the Concepts at DrōnTeq, 184

Validating an Entity Relationship Diagram, 188

Design Guidelines, 188

Normalization, 191

Balancing Entity Relationship Diagrams with Data Flow Diagrams, 191

Chapter Review, 193

Appendix 5A: Normalizing The Data Model, 196

6 Moving into Design, 201

Introduction, 202

Transition from Requirements to Design, 202

System Acquisition Strategies, 204

Custom Development, 206

Packaged Software, 207

Outsourcing, 208

Influences on the Acquisition Strategy, 211

Business Need, 211

In-House

Experience, 212

Project Skills, 213

Project Management, 213

Time Frame, 213

Selecting an Acquisition Strategy, 213

Alternative Matrix, 214

Applying the Concepts at DrōnTeq, 216

Chapter Review, 218

Part 3 Design Phase

7 Architecture Design, 223

Introduction, 224

Elements of an Architecture Design, 224

Architectural Components, 224

Client–Server Architectures, 225

Client–Server Tiers, 226

Server-Based

Architecture, 228

Mobile Application Architecture, 229

Advances in Architecture Configurations, 230

Comparing Architecture Options, 231

Creating an Architecture Design, 232

Operational Requirements, 232

Performance Requirements, 233

Security Requirements, 235

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Contents xv

Access Control Requirements, 237

Cultural and Political Requirements, 240

Designing the Architecture, 242

Hardware and Software Specification, 244

Applying the Concepts at DrōnTeq, 246

Creating an Architecture Design, 246

Hardware and Software Specification, 247

Chapter Review, 248

8 User Interface Design, 251

Introduction, 252

The Usability Concept, 252

Principles for User Interface Design, 253

Layout, 253

Content Awareness, 255

Aesthetics, 256

Usage Level, 256

Consistency, 258

Minimize User Effort, 259

Special Issues of Touch Screen Interface Design, 259

User Interface Design Process, 260

Understand the Users, 261

Organize the Interface, 263

Define Standards, 266

Interface Design Prototyping, 267

Interface Evaluation/Testing, 269

Navigation Design, 273

Basic Principles, 273

Menu Tips, 274

Message Tips, 276

Input Design, 279

Basic Principles, 279

Input Tips, 281

Input Validation, 283

Output Design, 283

Basic Principles, 283

Types of Outputs, 285

Media, 287

Applying the Concepts at DrōnTeq, 288

Understand the Users, 288

Organize the Interface, 289

Define Standards, 290

Interface Template Design, 290

Develop Prototypes, 295

Interface Evaluation/Testing, 296

Chapter Review, 296

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xvi Contents

9 Program Design, 301

Introduction, 302

Moving from Logical to Physical Process Models, 302

The Physical Data Flow Diagram, 302

Applying the Concepts at DrōnTeq, 305

Designing Programs, 306

Structure Chart, 309

Syntax, 310

Building the Structure Chart, 313

Applying the Concepts at DrōnTeq, 315

Design Guidelines, 319

Program Specification, 325

Syntax, 325

Applying the Concepts at DrōnTeq, 328

Chapter Review, 331

10 Data Storage Design, 337

Introduction, 338

Data Storage Formats, 338

Files, 339

Databases, 341

Selecting a Storage Format, 345

Applying the Concepts at DrōnTeq, 347

Moving from Logical to Physical Data Models, 348

The Physical Entity Relationship Diagram, 348

Revisiting the CRUD Matrix, 351

Applying the Concepts at DrōnTeq, 352

Optimizing Data Storage, 352

Optimizing Storage Efficiency, 355

Optimizing Access Speed, 357

Estimating Storage Size, 361

Applying the Concepts at DrōnTeq, 363

Chapter Review, 365

11 Moving into Implementation, 368

Introduction, 368

Managing the Programming Process, 369

Assigning Programming Tasks, 369

Coordinating Activities, 370

Managing the Schedule, 371

Testing, 371

Test Planning, 373

Unit Tests, 373

Integration Tests, 376

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Contents xvii

System Tests, 376

Acceptance Tests, 376

Developing Documentation, 378

Types of Documentation, 379

Designing Documentation Structure, 379

Writing Documentation Topics, 381

Identifying Navigation Terms, 382

Applying the Concepts at DrōnTeq, 384

Managing Programming, 384

Testing, 384

Developing User Documentation, 385

Chapter Review, 388

Part 4 Implementation Phase

12 Transition to the New System, 393

Introduction, 393

Making the Transition to the New System, 394

The Migration Plan, 395

Selecting the Conversion Strategy, 396

Preparing a Business Contingency Plan, 400

Preparing the Technology, 401

Preparing People for the New System, 402

Understanding Resistance to Change, 402

Revising Management Policies, 404

Assessing Costs and Benefits, 404

Motivating Adoption, 407

Enabling Adoption: Training, 408

Postimplementation Activities, 411

System Support, 411

System Maintenance, 412

Project Assessment, 414

Applying the Concepts at DrōnTeq, 416

Implementation Process, 416

Preparing the People, 416

Postimplementation Activities, 416

Chapter Review, 417

13 Agile Development Methods, 420

Introduction, 420

Origins of Agile, 421

Evolution of Agile Development, 422

Adoption of the Agile Approach, 423

Benefits of Agile Methods, 423

Adoption of Specific Agile Methodologies, 423

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xviii Contents

Scrum, 424

Overview of Scrum, 424

Scrum Characteristics, 426

Scrum Roles, 426

Scrum Features, 428

Scrum Processes, 432

How Does Scrum End?, 436

Other Types of Agile Methodologies, 436

Crystal Development Methodology, 436

Dynamic Systems Development Methodology, 437

Feature Driven Development, 437

Lean Software Development, 438

Comparing the SDLC with Agile Methodologies, 438

Chapter Review, 439

Index I-1

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